Category: Stock Investing
Over the past few weeks, I’ve been updating my portfolio. The good news is that I locked in a gain with NVDA by selling 100 of my shares for $212 per share, which I had bought at an average price of $25 about two years ago. The bad news is that I lost money on other investments. I sold shares in a few stocks that had declined in price and didn’t seem to hold potential for gain even when priced low. The good part of my bad moves is that I’ve honed my ability to know what not to buy when investing.
A few years ago, a reputable investment newsletter recommended a pink sheet stock. The writer briefly explained its riskiness for various reasons, including its lack of inclusion in the big leagues of major stock exchanges.
That mention prompted me to learn more about pink sheets, referencing the color of paper the stocks used to be listed on, and penny stocks, referencing a stock price of less than $5.00. I became intrigued with the concept and decided to learn the difference between equities traded on major exchanges and those traded over-the-counter (OTC).
Pink sheets and penny stocks, which are generally traded over the counter, are often touted as nontraditional ways of making lots of money. Just as growth in financial net worth can be a tool for thriving, losing money to worthless and misunderstood investments can thwart the achievement of my goals. So I did some research to determine how to best consider these investments and here’s what I uncovered:
In Chapter 20 of The Intelligent Investor, Benjamin Graham covers the ” ‘Margin of Safety’ as the Central Concept of Investment.” This big idea or motto is the “secret of sound investment” distilled to three words.
Graham says “the function of the margin of safety is, in essence, that of rendering unnecessary an accurate estimate of the future.” When considering whether an investment carries a favorable margin of safety, calculations should be based on present circumstances, not overly optimistic or hoped-for future situations.
As I delve into this chapter, I learn that though the margin-of-safety principle is one of the main things, it’s not the only thing relevant to intelligent investing. Its companion is diversification. In addition, I discover that real-life adherence to safety margins isn’t simple or always achievable.
Still, the concept is important and mathematical framework, crucial to the task of selecting securities and building a portfolio.
Chapter 8 of The Intelligent Investor focuses on dealing with market fluctuations. Graham opens this chapter advising investors to know about the possibility of these ups and downs. He urges us to be prepared financially and psychologically.
To be clear about the nature of potential fluctuations, Graham describes a probable set of circumstances. Within the next five years, shares of a given security may experience a 50+% price increase from its low point or a 30+% decline from its high point. Such changes in stock prices may bear no relationship to changes in economic values.
While the rise in prices sounds great, the decrease seems scary. Still, it’s this scenario for which Graham wishes to equip investors to withstand (and possibly profit from). He offers advice that I interpret in this way: